DISEASE AND MEDICINE MEDICAL

Hypertension (blood pressure)

HYPERTENSION
Written by Sonal Thakur

HYPERTENSION (BLOOD PRESSURE)


Hypertension is a disease of vascular regulation which in increases arterial pressure above the normal range and it is also called as blood pressure and blood pressure reading are given as two number.

  1.  Systolic hypertension-Equal the pressure in the heart as the heart contract.
  2.  Diastolic hypertension-Is the pressure in the arteries as the relax

Hypertension is not a disease in itself but is an important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. IN CASE OF HYPERTENSION-140/90.HYPERTENSION

B.PSYSTOLICDIASTOLIC
Normal< 120< 80
Pre-hypertension120-13980-89
Hypertension-1140-15990-89
Hypertension-2>160>100
     

TYPES

1.PRIMARY HYPERTENSION

Its due to unknown causes means no identifiable causes or without systemic cause, its called as essential hypertension.up to 95% of people have primary hypertension
Example:
  • Arterial degeneration
  • Prolonged mental tension
  • Hormonal and Metabolic Disturbance
  • Family History

2.SECONDARY HYPERTENSION

It’s due to pathological condition its called as secondary hypertension
Example:
  • Kidney Problem (E.g. Pyelonephritis )
  • Endocrine Disorder (E.g.Diabities mellitus)
  • Thyroid problem
  • Congenital deformities ( eg. Renal artery obstruction
  • Excessive body weight
  • Excessive sodium intake
  • In legal drugs taking
  • Smoking

3.WHITE COAT HYPERTENSION

 Its due to Anxiety only at a time of measuring B.P by doctor or nurse in hospital and clinic.

4.BENIGN HYPERTENSION

It’s uncomplicated hypertension, usually of long duration and mild to moderate severity, may be primary and secondary

5.BORDERLINE HYPERTENSION

Its defined as intermittent elevation of blood pressure with normal readings.

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

There is 3 control system play a major role in monitoring blood pressure.
  • Arterial baroreceptor
  • Regulation of body fluid volume
  • The renin-angiotensin system

1.Arterial Baroreceptor System

They are found in carotid sinus and wall of ventricles.B baroreceptors help to maintain blood pressure
2.Regulation of Body fluid Volume
Change in body fluid that affects systemic arterial pressure
↓↓↓
abnormalities in the transport of Na ion
↓↓↓
Increase Na, K,H2O in blood
↓↓↓
Increase blood volume
↓↓↓
increase blood pressure

3. Renin-Angiotensin System

1. Renin-Secret in kidney cell in the form of protein
2. Angiotensin-Angiotensin is found in the plasma from a pressure plasma alpha 2 globulin and the Angiotensin-1 is (Decapeptide) Angiotensin-2 is an (Octapeptide), Angiotensin-3 is a (Heptapeptde)
Angiotensin-1
↓↓↓
Angiotensin-2
↓↓↓
Increase sympathetic nervous system Activity
↓↓↓
Inhibit sodium excretion
↓↓↓
increase blood pressure

SYMPTOMS

Hypertension is generally silent condition Mostly hypertension have no sign and symptoms but few people have

  • Shortness of  Breath
  • A headache
  • Chest Pain
  • Nose bleeding (Epistaxis) 
  • Dizziness
  • Blurring vision
  • cardiac asthma
  • Anginal Pain
  • Haematuria 
  • Palpitation
  • Tinnitus

But it is not a specific symptoms

DIAGNOSIS

  • By measuring blood pressure
  • Physical examination
  • X-ray
  • Urin test
  • Blood test
  • ECG
  • Cholesterol screening

TREATMENT

The aim of treatment of hypertension is to prevent morbidity and mortality associated with persistently raised BP by lowering it to an acceptable level with minimum convince to the patient. The treatment of hypertension depends on your types of hypertension means your doctor determine which type of hypertension is causes you then suggest to treatment.

  1. Primary hypertension treatment
  2. Secondary Hypertension


MEDICATION

Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor – They inhibit Angiotensin 1 and 2.

  • Captopril
  • Enalapril
  • Lisinopril
  • Ramipril
  • Perindopril
  • Fosinopril

Calcium Channel Blockers-Prevent Stimulation of beta adrenergic receptor of sympathetic nervous system .beta adrenergic receptor causes vasoconstriction vessels.

  • Amlodipine
  • Nifedipine
  • Lacidipine
  • Felodipine
  • Verapamil
  • Diltiazem

Beta-Adrenergic Bloker

  • Propanolol
  • Atenolol
  • Metoprolol

Alpha Adrenergic blocker

  • Prazosin
  • Terazosin
  • Doxazosin
  • Phentolamine
  • Phenoxybenzamine

Beta +Alpha Adrenergic blocker

  • Labetalol
  • Carvedilol

Central Sympatholytics

  • Clonidine
  • Methyldopa

Vasodilator –They cause widening of blood vessels and therefore an increase in blood fluid

  • Arteriolar: Hydralazine, Diazoxide, Minoxidil
  • Arteriolar+Venous: Sodium nitroprusside

Direct Renin Inhibitor – They act by blocking the catalytic activity of renin and inhibiting production of angiotensin 1 and 2

  • Aliskiren

Diuretic – They Increase frequency of urine

  • Thiazides-Hydrochlorothiazide, Chlorthalidone, Indapamide 
  • High ceiling-Furosemide
  • K+ Sparing-Spironolactone, Amiloride

RICKS FACTOR

  1. To much use SALT in diet-To, much of Salt used in diet can retain a fluid then the arteries constrict and this condition causes blood pressure
  2. To little amount use Potassium in diet-Potassium is help the balance of sodium in cells.potassium is a help to relax smooth muscles which lower blood pressure.
  3. Overweight or Obesity -The Overweight is required a more oxygen to supply all tissues so  the blood volume circulation is increased at blood vessels
  4. Alcohol use to much-Drinking to much alcohol can cause hypertension, alcohol activating an adrenergic system and causing a constriction of a blood vessel, and its increase blood vessel flow and heart rate
  5. Take to much stress– More stress is increased blood pressure

PREVENTION

  1. Gating Daily exercise
  2. Reducing overweight
  3. Reduce intake of more salt
  4. Reduce too much using smoking and alcohol
  5. Manage your stress and getting Meditation

About the author

Sonal Thakur

Hello! Readers, I am Sonal Thakur the Indian blogger From Chhattisgarh & Founder of this website. I have created this website to provide all kind of information at one place like govt job updates, Technical related information, Health care information, online money earning information & some educational content information.

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