DISEASE AND MEDICINE MEDICAL

what is Dengue fever ?

Dengue fever
Written by Sonal Thakur

What is dengue fever?

Dengue is a mosquito-borne flaviviruses.

dengue fever is the most common among arthropod-borne disease .it is a disease of tropical and sub-tropical regions affecting an urban and peri-urban area.

This fever is an acute viral infection and occurs epidemic and endemic form in India. The increase of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever occur due to increases in population urbanizations inappropriate water managements travel tirade.
 DENGUE FEVER
This disease occurs frequently in the rainy season and immediately afterword (July & October) India. This is a mosquito-borne viral disease caused by arboviruses and transmitted through human peripherally by the mosquito.


Causes of dengue 

This is caused by any one of the  four closely related flaviviruses (DENV)
Den-1 
Den-2
Den-3
Den-4
These viruses are occurred since 100-800 year ago from a monkey according to CDC.

This fever is also spread by bites of mosquito in this cases of mosquito is are “AEDES AEGITPY & AEDES ALBOPICTUS” mosquito. These fever viruses are present in the blood of the patients is suffering from this fever. Mosquito bites who is infected with dengue fever and the viruses are transmitted from an infected person to another person.

Diagnosis

Their sing and symptoms of this disease are confused by those other diseases like malaria, typhoid fever. so in case, we can be tested in a laboratory. The true diagnosis has occurred through a laboratory test.

  • Laboratory test -In laboratory dengue can be tested by isolated a virus by serological test and molecular methods.in a laboratory test result clearly find out their virus.
  • History taking – the patient when started is weakness started to fever, skin rashes chills.
  • completely blood count.
  • Physical examinations
  • antibodies test IgM &IgG.

 

Pathophysiology

pathophysiology-of-dengue

Symptoms

Their symptoms are divided into three types 
1.Simple dengue fever ( SDF )
2.Dengue hemorrhagic fever( DHF )
3.Dengue shock syndrome ( DSS )
 

1.Simple dengue fever (SDF)

  • Fever sudden onset of high fever with the child that cause by mosquito bites.
  • Weakness fatigue
  • Depression
  • sweating
  • Sore thought
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Anorexia
  • Muscles & joint pain.
  • rashes on skin

2.Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)

  • Bleeding 
  • Thrombocytopenia 
  • Haematemesis
  • Epistaxis (Nose bleeding)
  • Damage lymph and blood vessels
  • Lower no of platelets
  • Blood spot on under the skin
  • Decrease pulse 

3.Dengue shock syndrome 

Dengue shock usually found after 2-7 days of fever the patient present with cold congested blotchy skin, rapid weak pulse lethargy restless salute abdominal pain because the onset of shock.hypertension is reduced pulse pressure is found.

Treatment

  • There is no specific treatment for dengue fever. 
  • Sympathetic should be done with bed rest, hydrotherapy.
  • Antipyretic (Paracetamol) for high fever.
  • Analgesic for pain may be used but salicylates (aspirin) should be avoided because it may participate in bleeding tendency and metabolic acidosis.
  • Oral fluid intake with ORS and fruit juice are preferred to plain water.
  • Blood transfusion may be needed in severe hemorrhagic manifestation.
  • Management of shock and other complication should be done properly with IV fluid therapy.

Medicine


Antipyretics- Paracetamol

Analgesic – ibuprofen,nimesulide
Antiviral -acyclovir

Vaccines of dengue

Nowadays dengue vaccines are available in 11 countries. The first vaccines of dengue is a “dengvaxia”  Sanofi Pasteur was first registered from Mexico. (CYD-TDV) .(CYT-TDV) live in recombinant tetrarelevent dengue vaccine has been evaluated as 3 dose series.

Dietary management

  • Papaya life juice – This is no drug-based treatment for the disease this is a popular natural remedy for this disease in papaya leaf juice.
  • Orange-sweet orange  or lime lemon also very well processed into juice because it is rich a vitamin c which helps the recovery of antibodies
  • Coconut water – The content of electrolyte and minerals present in coconut water is good for the body on replacement of this fever.
  • Vegetable juice – carrot .cucumber & green leaf vegetables juice well to provide the basic nutrition the human body.


Preventions

Use mosquito repellent.
Stay away from highly infected populations areas.

SUMMARY

In this article, we have written about dengue fever and their causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

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About the author

Sonal Thakur

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