DISEASE AND MEDICINE MEDICAL

ASTHMA Causes ,Treatment and Pathophysiology

ASTHMA
Written by Sonal Thakur

ASTHMA

INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITION

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of Airways that cause airway hyperresponsiveness of the period of bronchospasm, Mucous edema, And Mucous production. Means they swell and produce thick mucus. Asthma is a long terms condition.
       Asthma is a condition the airway narrow and swelled and produce more extra mucous and this condition can difficulty breathing, trigger coughing And wheezing (sound during inspiration).
        The airway is a tube that carries air in and out of lungs if any patient has asthma so their wall of the airway is swollen & Painfull  

 

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

When a person has asthma he comes in to contact with any irritants content and environment it causes their body to react following ↓↓ ↓ way :
 
Due to any causes
↓↓
Inflammation of Airway
↓↓
bronchial muscles and mucous gland enlarged
↓↓
Sputum Produced and Alveoli hyperinflated
↓↓
The person who is suffering from asthma develop an immune response to their alveoli Fibrotic changes in Airway lead to narrowing and potentially irreversible airflow limitation
↓↓
The mast cell is activated (which is play a key role in inflammatory)
↓↓
Release mast cell Production (Histamine prostaglandins bradykinins)
↓↓
Allergic inflammatory reaction
↓↓
The release of that mediator in lung tissue affect the smooth and gland of airway
↓↓

It causes bronchospasm mucous membrane swelling and excessive mucus production

CAUSES

Generally, the cause of asthma is clearly not understood but some combination factor like the environment and the energetic factor is show and confirm their causes. some point is given in below
  1. Environmental Factor
  • Change in Temperature mostly cold air.
  • Change in humidity-Dry air 
2.Allergen Inhalation
  • Food Treated with sulfate, beer, wine.etc.
3.Atmospheric Pollutant
  • Cigarette,Industrial smoke,ozone,sulphur dioxide,formaldehyde.

4.Medication

  • NASID, Beta-blocker medication.

5.Stress and up sate/Emotional
6.Strong odor and perfumes.
7.Genetics- Genes play an important role in developed asthma.

Sing and symptoms

The most common symptoms of asthma are:
  • Wheezing
  • shortness of breathing
  • Chest Tightness
  • Hypoxemia
  • A cough
  • Dyspnoea
  • Ron-chi (Sound during inspiration)
  • Attack of asthma Maybe For Few Minutes.

DIAGNOSIS

  • Physical examination
  • History Collection
  • Spirometry
  • Atrial blood gas analysis -Hypoxemia
  • chest x-ray
  • Auscultation of breath sound
  • Peak expiratory flow

TREATMENT AND MEDICATION

APPROACHES

  1. Prevention of AG: AB reaction-
  2. Neutralization of IgE
  3. Suppression of inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity
  4. Prevention of released mediators
  5. Antagonism of the release of Mediators
  6. Blocked of constrictor neurotransmitter

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Medication

1. Bronchodilators
A. Beta 2 agonist-   

  • Salbutamol
  • Terbutaline 
  • Bambuterol
  • Salmeterol  
  • Formoterol 
  •  Ephedrine

B.Methylxanthines

  • Theophylline 
  •  Aminophylline 
  •  Choline Theophylline 
  • Hydroxyethyl theophyl   
  • Doxophylline

C. Anticholinergics-

  • Ipratropium bromide 
  •  Tiotropium bromide

2. Leukotriene antagonists

  •  Montelukast
  • Zafirlukast

3.Mast cell stabilizers

  • Sodium cromoglycate
  • Letotifen

4. Corticosteroids
A.Systemic-

  • Hydrocortisone
  • Prednisolone

B. Inhalational-

  • Beclomethasone dipropionate 
  • Fluticasone dipropionate 
  • Budesonide

D. Anti-IgE-Omalizumab

PREVENTION

Self-care is very important for any asthma patient some prevention point is given in below

  • Monitor your breathing
  • Identify and avoid trigger
  • Identify attack and treat early
  • Avoid Smoking
  • Take medicine time to time
  • Wear Mask at pollution area

SUMMARY

Asthma is a chronic Inflammatory disease and this disease is causing the airway narrow and swallowed and produced extra mucus and this condition can create difficult to breathing and trigger coughing. To discuss the definition, introduction, pathophysiology, causes, and treatment.

 

About the author

Sonal Thakur

Hello! Readers, I am Sonal Thakur the Indian blogger From Chhattisgarh & Founder of this website. I have created this website to provide all kind of information at one place like govt job updates, Technical related information, Health care information, online money earning information & some educational content information.

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